Little work has accounted for congestion, using data that reflects driving patterns, traffic volume, and speed, to examine the association between traffic emissions and human health. In this study, we performed a health risk assessment of PM2.5 emissions during congestion periods in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA), Canada.
Electric vehicles (EVs) hold great promise for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, yet achieving their environmental benefits depends on greater market uptake. While a grow- ing body of literature has sought to offer information on consumer stated preferences for EVs, to date no research has examined how preferences for hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles are shaped by vehicle body size or type. The automobile market is differentiated with vehicle attributes that respond to heterogeneous consumer demands. We hypothesize that each bundle of attributes as it relates to vehicle body size also shapes demand for EVs.
Despite decades of research, it is unclear under which circumstances travel is most onerous. While studies have found that some individuals derive positive utility from aspects of commuting, others have shown that traffic congestion can entail important time, monetary, and mental stress costs. Moreover, responses to traffic congestion-related stressors differs by individual characteristics. In response, this research captures how exposure to traffic congestion events, the duration of this exposure, and individual trait susceptibility to congestion affect the utility of commuting.
Many rapid transit projects are justified by a desire to achieve intangible city image and branding goals such as promoting messages of modernity, economic growth, global competitiveness, and world city status. The relationship between rapid transit and city image is poorly understood in the planning literature. In response, this article presents a theoretical framework of rapid transit in image-led planning. The framework and examples of rapid transit in image-led planning in practice reveal that while important, rapid transit alone is not a sufficient condition for wholesale image change, and image-led planning must be mindful of a host of important practical considerations.
Identifying and measuring the land value uplift (LVU) impacts of rapid transit are important for a number of reasons. However, despite the general notion that rapid transit does confer positive LVU benefits, our comprehensive and critical review of more than 130 analyses across 60 studies completed in North America over the past 40 years finds significant heterogeneity in research outcomes, leaving many significant questions unanswered. Beyond high-level differences in study inputs, we argue that a fundamental source of variability is a lack of empirical specificity from the use of proximity as the dominant way in which LVU benefits are captured.
Transit oriented development (TOD), which is generally understood as the provision of higher-density, mixed- use, amenity-rich, and walkable development around rapid transit stations, has been championed as one of the most effective solutions for maximizing the potential return on investment for existing and future rapid tran- sit infrastructure projects. But it is clear that not all implementations of TOD are the same in every station catch- ment area across a transit network. This heterogeneity in station area contexts presents significant complexity for planners and policymakers interested in understanding existing TOD conditions, an area’s TOD potential, and the relevant policy and planning interventions required to achieve planning goals. It also creates complications for researchers interested in associating station contexts with various TOD outcomes.
Planners and policymakers often cite the tangible objective of land use change as a primary motivation and justification for an investment in light rail transit (LRT). But how has light rail performed with respect to achieving this goal? This paper reviews and synthesizes the previous literature on LRT and other rail rapid transit systems in North America, demonstrating that rail transit alone is not a primary driver of land use change and that six beneficial factors affect the ability of these systems to have a measurable impact on reshaping and revitalizing cities.
Joint venture public–private partnerships (PPPs) allow partners to share in the risks and rewards of joint production. But the literature offers little theoretical guidance on assessing performance and accountability in this type of PPP. This article fills this gap by examining joint ventures as PPPs and formulates a comprehensive performance evaluation framework. Its application to the case of Hong Kong’s Disneyland Resort reveals a project that has endured several challenges related to achieving objectives, ensuring cooperation among partners, and upholding principles of democratic accountability. Outcomes from this study offer new insight into an underexplored aspect of PPP research.
Despite the growing interest in the development of intermodal logistics centers by scholars and public- and private-sector actors, there is no con- sensus on the definitions of these centers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the literature and propose a unified and standardized typology and hierarchy of logistics centers. Several current terms and definitions are presented and used to establish criteria for creating a combined typology of logistics centers. This information is used to form a hierarchy of facilities according to their size, influence, value-added activities, and function in freight and logistics processes. The resulting typology and hierarchy are useful as a foundation for advancing research in this area.